Munich Center of the Learning Sciences

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Forms of Exams

In the course of studying, students will complete various module exams. Exams can be offered in the form of a written exam, oral exam, written homework, report, scientific protocol, case study, exercises, and/or poster. The lecturer decides on the choice of the exam form, and may choose to have either one long examination (in the form of an exam, term-paper or presentation) or two short examinations (combines term-paper and presentation) .


The most common examination assignments throughout the program are:

  • Term-paper: Term papers are written assignments, which can vary in their format from reviews and thoroughly answering open-ended questions to research proposals, pop-science articles or research reports.
  • Presentation: In many classes students are asked to present on specific topics and/or to design whole sessions.

Further possible assignments include:
  • Homework : Should be written in a logical text form.
  • Report: Is an independently prepared lecture that should be supported by appropriate visual aids. A subject-related talk can follow the report.
  • Scientific protocol: Contains a written, systematic treatment of a subject-relevant event including a critical discussion of the content.
  • Case studies: Are based on practice-related problems. The student should demonstrate an ability to apply a solid knowledge of theories, models and concepts in a case study. Interpretation of the results of the case study will be assessed.
  • Exercises: May be distributed throughout the semester on a systematic basis.
  • Poster: Should present scientific facts by means of text and illustration(s).
  • Essay: a piece of writing that explains student’s own point of view on some scientific question or issue and is supported by current research.
  • Review: examines scientific questions of interest through analysis and comparison of a number of studies conducted in the area of interest.
  • Metaanlalytical review: refers to methods focused on contrasting and combining results from different studies in order to identify patterns among study results.
  • Research report/project report: written assignment with description of the results of a specific project or research conducted by a student.
  • Individual and group presentations: presentation of research/projects/topics of interest performed individually or in groups with the use of PowerPoint.